BIM (Building Information Modelling) can be applied in an increasing number of different fields such as 3D & 4D modelling of a construction site. Here are some of the features, characteristics and advantages offered by BIM technology
The correct organization of the building site allows you to efficiently achieve prevention and adopt safety measures for workers, tools and site machinery in order to ensure a fast and efficient delivery of works and therefore save time too. When all project steps are completed, it also turns out to be an economic saving.
Let’s see how the BIM oriented 3D & 4D modelling act as support in the design process of construction site.
The design concept of the construction site
In the creation of a building, it’s mandatory to follow complex steps such as:
- Locating tools and machinery needed
- Tools positioning within the jobsite
- Locating working areas
- Delimiting roads reserved to the transit of vehicles
Therefore, to optimize the processes and correctly manage the resources, we must proceed to the design of the building site.
The design of the building site represents the stage (phase) on which the outcome of the construction process depends.
The building site is one of the starting points of the 4th Industrial Revolution.
The BIM oriented methodology will give a more efficient and more effective approach to the building design.
BIM and the parametric modelling of a building site
With BIM technology, it’s also possible to design the building site thanks to parametric 3D modelling.
The BIM modelling technique represent objects with parameters and rules that determine their geometry, characteristics and properties. For example, the design of scaffoldings.
It is possible to design a scaffolding by simply assigning a number and the dimensions of the decks and spans to design the scaffolding structure completing it with:
- Diagonal bracings
- Railings (parapets)
- Toe boards,
This easy way of modelling suits perfectly with the continuous changes applied to the site.
For example, it’s known that a scaffolding can undergo continuous changes during the realization of the building site:
- Logistics (fences, roads, storage areas, offices)
- Technological (Scaffolding, cranes, machines, systems)
- Environmental (Flora & Fauna, rivers, cliffs)
- Man-Made (Residential and productive activities, roads) inside and outside the site.
Construction site model
Having a virtual model of the building site gives us a world of possibilities. The Digital Twin is an exact copy, a virtual model, of the real object on which it’s possible to apply tests to avoid potential problems and/or errors that can have a negative impact in terms of financial and time losses.
With a virtual model of the building site and the area on which it will be built, (DT) it’s possible to simulate the building process to verify:
- Potential issues on the organization and planning process
- Operative procedures
- Risk prevention and safety measures.
It’s also possible to identify and solve potential health and safety risks that may affect workers in advance.
A 3D virtual model allows the designer to simulate the construction site with:
- Object animations (workers, tools, machineries, etc..)
With the purpose of analysing spatial interferences, simulate particular weather conditions etc..
From the virtual model (DT) it’s possible to obtain various other types of information and documents:
Information for the implementation of the building site and its changes
Data sheets obtained from the model:
- Floor plans
- Area plans
- axonometric cutaway drawings
- area views
- perspectives (elevation views)
- construction details.
All of this data will give us a specific view of the building site in a precise moment, therefore the advantages of having a digital model of the building site are tangible.
Safety and collaborative working
Thanks to IFC open format, engineers involved in the design process can share the 3D model of their specific discipline following strict rules provided by the BIM technology.
For example: the building site design engineer can “input” inside his own virtual model the architectural, structural, technical systems virtual model, etc. creating the so-called Federated Digital Model: a common environment where design choices inside the design process can be analysed.
BIM software for worker’s safety in construction sites
CerTus-HSBIM is the latest software developed by ACCA for worker’s safety analysis aspects in construction sites.
With CerTus-HSBIM it is possible to design the building site in 3D and 4D and create an actual virtual model necessary for the workers safety ergo-technical study in relation with a detailed timing simulation for each work phase.