# Parking garage ramp design, the complete guide

## Parking garage ramp design: the complete guide with layouts, construction details, videos and examples to download

A ramp is an architectural element connecting two levels with different elevation. As a sloping surface, ramps provide an alternative to stairs for wheelchair users, people with mobility issues, bicycles and other wheeled vehicles.

In this insight we’ll be analyzing garage ramp design and construction techniques, specifically focusing on different types of driveway ramps.

DWG layouts with floor plans and sections of different types of ramps and the project 3D models in EDF format. These are ready for download and can be a useful reference for your projects.

You can even open the project 3D models in EDF format created with Edificius. Download the 30-day free Trial of the software here.

In our previous insights we  examined car parking design types and how to design a garage. This week’s Architecture Focus relating to garage ramp design, will address both topics.

Different elements need to be considered when designing a garage ramp. Let’s see them in detail.

### Ramp types

Ramp types can be distinguished in linear and circular or helical. The linear ones can be either rectilinear or offset.

Both types can then be one-way or two-way.

Garage ramp project: linear ramps

Garage ramp project: circular ramps

### Width and slope of the ramp

Critical elements to take into account are width and slope.

Max ramp slope and parking space slopes are most likely regulated by the local code. If there are no rules in the jurisdiction, the practical max slope is 20% for most types of vehicles. Measurements below the maximum slope are within the parameters of safety and accessibility.

Garage ramp project: A-A section

The vertical radius of curvature is also important for the transition between the sloping part and the flat areas to prevent vehicles from scraping the bottom part.

For a one-way ramp the minimum width is 3 mt., while 4,5 mt. for a two-way ramp.

The radius of the circular ramp should not be less than 7 mt. (two-way ramps minimum radius is 8,25 mt.).

Between the beginning of the sloping section (upper part) and the public transit space a flat section should be left (at least 3 m), so that the outgoing driver has the necessary view and does not break into the public area.

Furthermore, during design stage it is important to provide a draining kerb with a driveway grid at the base of the sloping section (preferably at the top).

To recap:

#### Linear ramps

Minimum widthRecommended width
One-way3,00 mt.4,00 mt.
Two-way4,50 mt.6,00 mt.

#### Circular ramps

Minimum widthRecommended width
One-way3,00 mt.4,00 mt.
Two-way4,50 mt.6,50 mt.
One-way7,00 mt.7,50 mt.
Tw0-way8,25 mt.11,85 mt.

As mentioned above, the maximum slope for both types of ramps is 20% (recommended 16%).

For connecting levels, the slope must be a max of 6%.

Garage ramp project: offset ramps

### Floor coating

A further aspect to consider in the garage ramp project is the floor coating/flooring.

The type of material chosen must first of all be functional to the purpose (to have a certain grip for the ramp, not to be affected by the reported salt, or cast to melt the ice), but also to bring about a pleasing aesthetic result.

In addition to asphalt and reinforced concrete paving, let’s consider cement, porphyry, and synthetic flooring.

In particular, the concrete one is an excellent solution, having various types of finishings, such as the herringbone parking system. This way, surfaces are particularly suitable for tires adherence with all weather conditions.

Porphyry can be used in areas most exposed to cold and frost.

In addition to being undoubtedly the coverage with the best appearance, it even increases the grip of car tires, especially in not very sunny areas that can become slippery during cold weather. At the same time, it protects pedestrians walking path thanks to its rough and adherent coating.

### Garage ramp design: download project models in EDF and floor plans and sections in DWG

Here are the floor plans and sections in DWG format of the different types of ramp ready for download.

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